Volume: 19.1
Year: 2004

Directions:

1. Select articles from one of the following issues:

Year 2016 Volume 31 No 2
Year 2015 Volume 30 No 3
Year 2015 Volume 30 No 2
Year 2015 Volume 30 No 1
Year 2014 Volume 29 No 3
Year 2014 Volume 29 No 2
Year 2014 Volume 29 No 1
Year 2013 Volume 28 No 3
Year 2013 Volume 28 No 2
Year 2013 Volume 28 No 1
Year 2012 Volume 27 No 3
Year 2012 Volume 27 No 2
Year 2012 Volume 27 No 1
Year 2011 Volume 26 No 3
Year 2011 Volume 26 No 2
Year 2011 Volume 26 No 1
Year 2010 Volume 25 No 3
Year 2010 Volume 25 No 2
Year 2010 Volume 25 No 1
Year 2009 Volume 24 No 3
Year 2009 Volume 24 No 2
Year 2009 Volume 24 No 1
Year 2008 Volume 23 No 4
Year 2008 Volume 23 No 3
Year 2008 Volume 23 No 2
Year 2008 Volume 23 No 1
Year 2007 Volume 22 No 3
Year 2007 Volume 22 No 2
Year 2007 Volume 22 No 1
Year 2006 Volume 21 No 3
Year 2006 Volume 21 No 2
Year 2006 Volume 21 No 1
Year 2005 Volume 20 No 2
Year 2005 Volume 20 No 1
Year 2004 Volume 19 No 2
Year 2004 Volume 19 No 1
Year 2003 Volume 18 No 2
Year 2003 Volume 18 No 1
Year 2002 Volume 17 No 2
Year 2002 Volume 17 No 1
Year 2001 Volume 16 No 2
Year 2001 Volume 16 No 1

2. Click on [more] at the end of the abstract of the article you wish to read

Title Year Vol. No. Size
CLASSROOM INTERVENTIONS: METHODS TO IMPROVE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AND CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR FOR STUDENTS WITH ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER 2004 19 1 113 KB
Christopher Reiber and T.F.McLaughlin Gonzaga University

Behavior management techniques are essential components of any treatment method for students with ADHD. Further, they appear to be the only line of treatment to which school personnel have direct access. Research has suggested that nearly all educators employ some form of behavioral modification techniques in their classroom. This paper will explore a variety of classroom interventions to assist teachers to work successfully with children with ADHD. These include: classroom structure, teaching modifications, peer interventions, token economies and self-management. The interventions reviewed were presented on a continuum from the least basic modifications needed in the classroom to those in which more time and resources are involved. All the strategies reviewed were evidence based. Also included in the paper is an interview of a general education instructor and an review of the strategies he employs in his classroom.... [more]


AUTISTIC SPECTRUM DISORDERS: CAUSAL MECHANISMS AND RECENT FINDINGS ON ATTENTION AND EMOTION 2004 19 1 56 KB
S Bryson, R Landry, P Czapinski, B McConnell, V Rombough, and A Wainwright York University

This paper provides an overview of selective research on autism. Autism forms part of a spectrum of related developmental disorders that vary in severity. Both their prevalence and severity argue for concerted efforts aimed at improving our understanding and treatment of the many individuals affected. We begin by outlining an important discovery that implicates an early prenatal insult to the developing brain stem in at least some people with autism (hereafter, the thalidomide discovery; Miller & Stromland, 1993). Several lines of evidence consistent with this claim are summarized. We then turn to recent research on early developing mechanisms of attention and emotion in autism. Evidence to be reviewed points to impairment in the disengage function of visual attention, and data are provided on the relationship between disengagement and the regulation of emotional states. Research on emotion focuses on the hypothesis, derived from the thalidomide discovery, that there may be a physical/anatomical basis to the lack of facial expressiveness in autism. We end by discussing the implications of this work for future research and for supporting children and adults with autism.... [more]


PRIMITIVE REFLEXES AND ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER: DEVELOPMENTAL ORIGINS OF CLASSROOM DYSFUNCTION 2004 19 1 205 KB
M Taylor, S Houghton and E Chapman The University of Western Australia

The present research studied the symptomatologic overlap of AD/HD behaviours and retention of four primitive reflexes (Moro, Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex [TLR], Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex [ATNR], Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex [STNR]) in 109 boys aged 7-10 years. Of these, 54 were diagnosed with AD/HD, 34 manifested sub-syndromal coordination, learning, emotional and/or behavioural symptoms of AD/HD, and 21 had no (or near to no) symptoms of AD/HD. Measures of AD/HD symptomatology and of the boys´ academic performance were also obtained using the Conners´ rating scale and the WRAT-3, respectively. Results indicated that, in general, boys diagnosed with AD/HD had significantly higher levels of reflex retention than non-diagnosed boys. Results also indicated both direct and indirect relationships between retention of the Moro, ATNR, STNR and TLR reflexes with AD/HD symptomatology and mathematics achievement. The pattern of relationships between these variables was also consistent with the notion of the Moro acting as a gateway for the inhibition of the other three reflexes.... [more]


TRANSFORMATIONAL LEARNING: A DESCRIPTION OF HOW INCLUSIONARY PRACTICE WAS ACCEPTED IN INDIA 2004 19 1 102 KB
V Timmons and M Alur University of Prince Edward Island

In this article, a program to support inclusive education in India is presented. India is described as a country with many challenges and much historical strength. Developing inclusive educational practice in a country with one billion people, an attitude of charity towards people deemed less fortunate and extremely limited resources is a challenge. The key components of sustainable inclusive practice are: understanding the concept, ownership of the approach and a commitment to further the process through proper policy channels. A process of the transformation of an organization that provided segregated services to children with special needs and moved to an organization which promotes and supports inclusive practice is described. Transformation requires multiple approaches and this paper will focus on the journey the staff undertook to achieve their goal.... [more]


SPECIAL EDUCATION IN THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES: ANXIETIES, ATTITUDES AND ASPIRATIONS 2004 19 1 49 KB
K Bradshaw, L Tennant and S Lydiatt Zayed University

The purpose of this article is to provide a brief background about the educational system in the United Arab Emirates and particularly describe the present types of programs and services offered within the country with respect to individuals with special needs. In addition, findings of an ongoing study about the attitudes of teachers and preservice teachers towards the integration of children with special needs into regular schools across the United Arab Emirates have been discussed. As the country continues its dramatic period of change as a nation, changes in the education of children with special needs will occur at a rapid rate. For success in the change process information on the attitudes and anxieties of the major stakeholders needs to be investigated and addressed. The findings of study would contribute to the literature base. Finally, the educational implications and recommendations will be explored within the social, religious and cultural contexts of the country.... [more]


THE EFFECTS OF A FIRST DAY AND SECOND DAY READS ON READING ACCURACY WITH READING MASTERY III TEXTBOOK B FOR A FIFTH GRADE STUDENT WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES 2004 19 1 100 KB
E Fitzpatrick, T.F.McLaughlin and K Weber Gonzaga University

The purpose of the present case report was to examine the effects of one and two day reads over lessons in Reading Mastery. The participant was a fifth grade male with learning disabilities. Data were collected on his correct and error rate across various lessons. The data were gathered in the participant's resource room classroom. The overall outcomes indicated a sharp decrease in errors with a smaller increase in corrects. The procedures were easy to carry out and data collection straightforward. Recommendations for future research combining Direct Instruction curricula and procedures with that of precision teaching were made.... [more]


DESIGN AND USES OF AN AUDIO/VIDEO STREAMING SYSTEM FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES 2004 19 1 543 KB
B Hogan self

Within most educational institutes there are a substantial number of students with varying physical and mental disabilities. These might range from difficulty in reading to difficulty in attending the institute. Whatever their disability, it places a barrier between them and their education. In the past few years there have been rapid and striking advances in commercial audio/video/computer technology. But it seems that often, these advances are not applied within the assistive technology sector or only on a very limited basis. Part of the reason for this may be lack of awareness and knowledge of the technologies and lack of understanding as to how they may be employed to benefit students with disabilities. This article hopes to touch on just a few of the areas where cheap, off the shelf products can be combined in an assistive technology role. The system and applications discusses do not require a high degree of technical skill to set up or maintain. Described here are the methods of deploying audio/video-streaming technologies that can be used as an integrated and fundamental tool to assist disabled students in their everyday education, from access to reading material to video conferencing with lecturers for students who cannot attend the institute. The article does not aim to give an in depth analysis of the technologies, rather a brief introduction to their use and a feeling for how the may be deployed. Firstly, a description of how texts can be recorded to computer and from there to a streaming audio/video library is given. From this basic system it is easy to expand its capabilities to include video streaming of lectures, both live and recorded.A description of the standard web page interface that can be used by sighted and blind students is provided. How the system can be replicated in a number of educational institutes and how all these system may be linked into a national/international audio/video library for texts and lectures is then discussed. A brief description of two alternate user interfaces suitable for students with limited physical mobility are described. A brief description of how video conferencing can be used to give students, who cannot attend the institute, access to seminars and lecturers is given. An overview of various organisational challenges is presented. Finally, a conclusion is given.... [more]


CONSTRUCTIVIST REMEDIATION: CORRECTION IN CONTEXT 2004 19 1 125 KB
G Johnson Grant MacEwan College

Constructivism refers to a collection of educational practices that are student-focused, meaning-based, process-oriented, interactive, and responsive to student personal interests and needs. In contrast, instructionism refers to a collection of educational practices that are teacher-focused, skill-based, product-oriented, non-interactive, and highly prescribed. In the context of reading instruction, constructivist theoretical assumptions are reflected in whole language learning; instructionist theoretical assumptions are manifest in remedial reading. Constructivist remediation is teacher-controlled and skill-directed instruction delivered in a context that is personally meaningful to students. Both constructivist and instructionist assumptions are acknowledged and combined to provide the foundation upon which specific skill deficits are identified and corrected in meaningful context. Constructivist remediation is conceptualized and presented in terms of seven critical elements that are integrated and interdependent. Core skills remediation in 1) phonological processing, 2) sight word vocabulary, and 3) reading comprehension, based upon 4) authentic individual student assessment, are taught in instructional contexts made meaningful by 5) whole pieces of literature, 6) integration of literacy and language development, and 7) enhanced student motivation through self-selected, functional learning activities.... [more]


CLASS SIZE REDUCTION: NO SILVER BULLET FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION STUDENTS´ ACHIEVEMENT 2004 19 1 95 KB
F Zarghami and G Schnellert St. Cloud State University

While there are hundreds of studies reported for general education, few researchers have focused on the impact of class size on the academic achievement of students with special needs. Despite escalating special education costs and increasing student needs, policies governing special education remain inconsistent. We examine the effect of class size reduction on special education students. Two issues were explored: (a) appropriate class size and caseload as they influence special education student academic achievement and (b) the effect of class size on special education teacher attrition rate and teaching methods. The implications of these issues for policy makers are also discussed. Findings indicate 1) each state has different rules on class size and caseload for special education, 2) the students demonstrating the most profound needs remain largely unaffected by class size reduction, and 3) that attrition rate is affected more by quality of teacher preparation than it is by class size. Teachers felt inadequately prepared for inclusion and indicated that their primary need was for more specific inclusion training. We identified no single best way to determine appropriate class and group size for special instructional programs and services; however, the existence of well-qualified teachers proved an important factor in increasing student achievement.... [more]


MEDICATION AND SCHOOL INTERVENTIONS FOR ELEMENTARY STUDENTS WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER 2004 19 1 118 KB
K Morisoli and T.F.McLaughlin Gonzaga University

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects increasing numbers of children in every country around the world. Children who are diagnosed with ADHD are constantly having difficulties in the classroom environment. There are various medication therapies and evidence based procedures (EBP) which teachers can employ to further assist children with ADHD. The purpose of this manuscript was to provide an up-to-date review and analysis of the various medications used to reduce ADHD symptoms. In addition was examined the various behavioral interventions for the classroom. This was done to provide classroom personnel with a set of procedures that can assist them in their work with their students with ADHD.... [more]


ABLE VOICES ON INCLUSION/EXCLUSION - A PEOPLE IN THEIR OWN WORDS 2004 19 1 113 KB
D Francis and N Muthukrishna University of Natal

This article presents a study that examined the life experiences of ten disabled students enrolled in secondary school in a rural context in South Africa. The methodology used to understand their life experiences of schooling is the narrative. The student´s authentic personal stories were used to explore their experiences. Through stories of the ten students we were able to learn from the motivations, contextual dynamics, and struggles that have made and make meanings in their lives. By communicating their stories, the students have enabled the researchers to connect with their anxieties, concerns, perceptions, experiences and challenges in their learning environment. What becomes evident in this study is the fact that the processes inclusion and exclusion are multiple and complex, and are enacted within wider social and political contexts. Furthermore, findings in this study support the arguments put forth by Edwards, Armstrong & Miller (2001) that inclusion is not the binary opposite of exclusion, and that inclusion will not overcome exclusion. Evidence of exclusion will always be found in practices of inclusion. The challenge is constantly to subject these notions and practices to interrogation and deconstruction within the micro-practices of an organisation such as the school and its community.... [more]